keskiviikko 21. syyskuuta 2016

Tiede homeopatian takana

Torstaina, 25. elokuuta 2016


Homeopatiaa tukevaa tieteellistä tutkimusta löytyy

Lue koko alkuperäinen artikkeli:  http://safe-medicine.blogspot.fi/2016/08/science-supporting-homeopathy_25.html

Lääketieteen fundamentalistit ovat aina tähän asti halunneet toistaa mantraansa `ei ole olemassa´näyttöä homeopatiasta´, eikä minulla ole epäilystäkään siitä, että he aikovat jatkaa samaa, ja niin usein kuin vain on mahdollista ja niin kauan kuin jotkut haluavat tätä kuunnella, ja niin kauan kuin farmaseuttinen lääketeollisuus jatkaa lääketieteen pääläpäsmäämistää.Tämä mantra on ärsyttänyt homeopaatteja vuosikausia, vaikkakaan tämä ei ole lopettanut heitä jatkamasta tätä ihailtavaa työtään ja auttamaan sairaiden ihmisten parantamissa, eikä tämä ole lopettanut koskaan ihmisten parantumista tämän ihmeellisen lääketieteellisen terapian avulla.
  
Tässä blogissani julkaisen epätavallisen laajan työn, jonka on ottanut vastuulleen Robert Medhurst, BNat, ND, DHom, ja olen kiitollinen hänelle sekä tämän valtavan työn tekemisestä, ja antamalla minulle luvan julkaista se tässä.   


Robert Medhurst on australialainen naturopaatti, joka on erikoistunut homeopatiaan ja on kirjoittanut kirjan: The Concordant Clinical Homeopathic Repertory´n,  perustavaa laatua olevan oppaan  kliinisen homeopatian käytöstä. Katso lisää:  www.adelaidehillsnaturopath.com.au. 
Pyydän anteeksi varsinkin lääketieteellisiltä fundamentalisteilta tämän blogin pituudesta, ja sen sisältämien tieteellisten tutkimusten melkoisesta lukumäärästä. Tiedän tämän aiheuttavan heille melkoista päänvaivaa. 

Kuitenkin miljoonille homeopatian käyttäjille kautta maailman jo yli 220 vuoden ajalta, tämä vahvistaa heidän oman kokemuksensa. Ja tuleville potilaille tämä vahvistaa sen, että vaihtoehtoja suuressa määrin tehottomille ja haitallisille, konventionaaliselle lääketieteelle perustuville lääkkeille löytyy. Tutkimus löytyy kokonaisuudessaan tästä yhteenvedosta.(Linkki ylhäällä!)

 
Homeopatiatutkimuksia:  4 eri ryhmää                      Robert Medhurst, BNat, ND, DHom 
Vast´ikään Austraaliassa, National Health and Medical Research CouncilAustralian Federal Government,  huippu-asiantuntijaneuvoja terveydenhoidosta antava elin Austraaliassa, julkaisi tutkimustuloksensa 17 luonnonlääkkeen modaliteeteistä, joista yksi koskee homeopatiaa.Siinä todettiin, että näyttöä tehokkuudesta ei ollut riittävästi tai että näyttö näiden terapioiden kliinisestä vaikutuksesta ei ollut  vakuuttavaa. Tämä oli mielenkiintoinen tulos, kun otetaan huomioon niiden hyvänlaatuisten näyttöjen määrät, jotka vahvistavat homeopatian tehokkuuden. Muutama vuosi sitten kirjoitin artikkelin, joka sisälsi yhteenvetoja useimmista eniten tutkituista homeopaattisista aineista, jotka oli julkaistu siihen mennessä. Nyt tämä artikkeli, jota on täydennetty elokuussa 2016, on päivitys tuohon edelliseen, ja se kattaa suurimman osan tutkimuksista, joita on tehty tällä alueella tähän päivään mennessä.Tämä kattaa 449 abstraktia ihmisillä, eläimillä, kasveilla ja in-vitro tehdyillä tieteellisillä tutkimuksilla, jotka ovat todisteena siitä faktasta, että on tehty runsain mitoin hyvin järjestetttyjä tieteellisiä tutkimuksia, ja ne osoittavat oikeaksi sen tosiasian, että homeopatiasta löytyy paljon hyvin toteutettua objektiivista näyttöä, joka vahvistaa homeopatian käytön positiivisen vaikutuksen sairauksien hoidon onnistumisessa.      

- Tutkimukset ihmisillä  -  255 kpl
Katso kaikki linkistä:http://safe-medicine.blogspot.fi/2016/08/science-supporting-homeopathy_25.html



Muutamia esimerkkejä näistä tutkimuksista:

 

49. Haila S, Koskinen A, Tenovuo J. Effects of homeopathic treatment on salivary flow rate and subjective symptoms in patients with oral dryness: a randomized trial. ( - Homeopaattisen hoidon vaikutus syljen eritykseen ja henkilökohtaisiin oireisiin suun kuivuudesta kärsivillä potilailla: satunnaistettu tutkimus)  
 Homeopathy. 2005, 94, 3, 175-81. 
In this blind, placebo-controlled study, 28 people diagnosed with xerostomia (dryness of the mouth) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or individually prescribed homeopathic medicines. Assessed using un-stimulated and wax-stimulated salivary flow rates and visual analogue scales at the end of the trial, 26 of those people using homeopathic treatment and none using placebo were found to have had significant relief. Following the assessment of these results those on placebo were switched to homeopathic therapy, after which all experienced relief from their xerostomia.

78. Matusiewicz R. The effect of a homoepathic preparation on the clinical condition of patients with corticosteroid dependant bronchial asthma. ( - Homeopaattisen valmisteen vaikutus kliinisessä tilassa olevilla kortikosteroideja käyttävillä bronkiaali-astmapotilailla.)  Biomedical Therapy, 1997, 15, 3, 70-74.    In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, 40 people suffering from corticosteroid- dependant bronchial asthma were given either placebo or a combination homeopathic formula, every 5 to 7 days by subcutaneous injection. Using standard spirometry and granulocyte function to measure the response, researchers found that the combination product provided superior results to placebo. 
 
79. McCutcheon LE. Treatment of anxiety with a homoeopathic remedy. ( - Ahdistuneisuuden hoito homeopaattisella lääkkeellä.)  Journal of Applied Nutrition, 1996, 48, 1& 2, 2-6. 
72 people with above-average levels of anxiety were enrolled in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and assigned to either a test or control (placebo) group to assess the relative benefits of a combination homeopathic product designed to relieve anxiety. Using sleep loss as a measure of anxiety, the combination product produced results that were better than those from placebo.
80. Milewska G, Trzebiatowska-Trzeciak O. Homoeopathic Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal.              ( - Homeopaattinen hoito alkoholista vierottautumiseen.)  British Homoeopathic Journal, 1993. October, 82, 249-251. 
Alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens experienced by 30 alcoholics was the focus of this uncontrolled study carried out in a Polish medical clinic. Patients were treated with individualised homeopathy and their progress followed for 2 months. The treatment resulted in a reduced duration of alcohol withdrawal time and delirium tremens in all patients.

83. Mohan GR. Efficacy of Homeopathy in Childhood Asthmas. ( - Homeopatian tehokkuus lapsuusajan astmassa.)  Homeopathic Links, Summer 2007, Vol 20, 104-107. 
This paper reports of work done in India by homeopath, GR Mohan, looking at the results of the homeopathic treatment of 81 children suffering from clinically defined asthma who had previously been treated unsuccessfully with conventional medicine. This open study involved the use of individually prescribed homeopathic medicines for a period of 2 years as a means of reducing the recurrence of asthma attacks. Results were assessed according the 12 point Modified Borg Scale, a subjective scale used to assess the severity of dyspnoea. At the end of the allotted 2 year period, the results were analysed and it was found that asthma had become controlled in 60.5% of children who’d been treated with homeopathy, and some control was achieved in a further 21%. 12.3% of the group failed to respond to the treatment. The medicines used most frequently in this study were Arsenicum album, Merc solubilis, Hepar sulph, Arsenicum iod, Antimony tart, Pulsatilla and Calc carb. 

100. Robinson T. Responses to homeopathic treatment in National Health Service general practice.           ( - Homeopaattisen hoidon vaste N.H.S.- asiakaspiirissä.)  Homeopathy. 2006, 95, 1, 9-14. 
This study was designed to determine the level of effectiveness of homeopathy as used in a general practice clinic where the standard 10 minute consultation time applies. To do this, 5,331 patient files, taken from one 12 month period in one general practice clinic, were examined and those files that described a consultation where a homeopathic medicine was given were separated out for analysis. This produced a total of 489 consultations that resulted in a homeopathic medicine prescription. Of these, 78% of patients had a positive response to their treatment with homeopathy, 19% had no response, and 3% had a negative response.
107. Schneider C, et al.The role of a homoeopathic preparation compared with conventional therapy in the treatment of injuries: an observational cohort study. ( - Homeopaattisen valmisteen rooli verrattuna konventionaaliseen vammojen hoitoterapiaan: tähystyksellä tehty joukkotutkimus.)   Complement Ther Med. 2008, 16, 1, 22-7. 
The researchers in this study set out to compare the effectiveness of a homeopathic combination product (Traumeel) with conventional medical treatment ,for injuries. 125 people suffering from various musculoskeletal injuries were treated either with the homeopathic combination or conventional medicine and were assessed for resolution of the complaint at the end of the trial period. At this point, the 59.4% of the group receiving the homeopathic combination had complete resolution compared with 57.8% of the group treated with conventional medicine. 6.3% of the latter group experienced adverse reactions to the treatment and none of those on the homeopathic combination experienced side effects.

131. Weiser M, Clasen BPE. Controlled Double Blind study of a Homoeopathic Sinusitis Medication.        ( - Kontrolloitu kaksoissokkokoe homeopaattisesta poskiontelotulehduksen hoidosta.)  Biological Therapy, 1995, 13, 1, 4- 11.                                                                                                                                       In a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial, 155 people suffering from sinusitis were given either a placebo or a homoeopathic combination (Heel Euphorbium compositum). Subjective responses showed a greater improvement in those using the homoeopathic combination than those given placebo. 

139. Witt C, et al. Outcome and costs of homoeopathic and conventional treatment strategies: a comparative cohort study in patients with chronic disorders. ( - Tulokset homeopaattisen ja konventionaalisen hoitojen strategioista: vertaileva kohorttitutkimus kroonisesti sairailla potilailla.)   Complement Ther Med. 2005, 13, 2, 79-86.                                                                                                This cohort study, carried out in Germany, examined the outcomes of homeopathic treatment compared to the orthodox medical treatment of 493 people suffering from a range of chronic illnesses including headache, lower back pain, insomnia, depression, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. The patients’ assessments, taken at 6 months and 12 months from the beginning of the treatment, found that homeopathy provided a greater level of improvement in their illnesses than orthodox medical intervention. This difference appeared to be more pronounced in children than in adults. In regard to the cost of each type of therapy, this study showed these costs to be similar to each other.
140. Witt CM, et al. How healthy are Chronically Ill Patients after Eight years of Homeopathic Treatment? - Results from a long term observational study. (- Kuinka terveitä kroonisesti sairaat potilaat olivat 8 vuotta kestäneen homeopaattisen hoidon jälkeen? - Tulokset pitkäaikasseurantatutkimuksesta.)  BMC Public Health 2008 Dec 17;8:413. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-413. 
German academic and researcher Professor Claudia Witt has been responsible for a number of excellent papers on homeopathy and in this, she and co-workers drew data from 103 Swiss and German homeopathic medicine clinics in an effort to determine the level of change to the health status of patients over periods of 2 and 8 years, as a result of homeopathic intervention, over these times. Data was collected from 3709 patients who were asked to assess the level of change to the severity of their medical complaints and quality of life, at the time of first consultation, at 2 years, and at 8 years from that point. The data from adults and children were assessed separately and the former experienced an average reduction in disease severity from 6.2 at baseline to 2.9 at 2 years to 2.2 at 8 years. For children, a reduction from a baseline disease severity of 6.1 to 2.1 at 2 years was noted and then to 1.7 at 8 years. Physical and mental quality of life scores for both groups increased significantly over the study period and interestingly, researchers found that, within the confines of this study, the younger the patient and the more severe the medical condition, the better the potential for the therapeutic success of homeopathy


- Eläintutkimukset - 61 kpl
1. Aboiutboul R. Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats. ( - Käärmeistä valmistetut homeopaattiset lääkkeet ja kissojen kompleksinen eosinofiilinen granulooma.)  Homeopathy, 2006, 95, 1, 15-19. 
An Israeli veterinary clinic compiled case records involving Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) in cats taken over an 8 year period. 20 cases of the condition were seen during this period and details of 15 of these cases were recorded. EGC is a syndrome characterised by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects. The cases recorded involved the use of homeopathic snake remedies (the most frequently used being Lachesis) and in all 15 cases, reactions were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recoveries.
2. Banerjee P, et al. Comparative Efficacy of Two Microdoses of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Arsenicum album, to Ameliorate Toxicity Induced by Repeated Sublethal Injections of Arsenic trioxide in Mice. ( - Kahden homeopaattisen potensoidun lääkkeen mikroannoksen: Arsenicum album´ia, tehokkuusvertailu parannettaessa myrkyllisyyttä, kun hiirille oli annosteltu lähes kuolettavia Arseenitrioksidi-injektioita.) Pathobiology. 2008, 75, 3,. 156-70. 
This subject has had previous attention by Datta, Kundu and others, and in this randomised controlled trial, 6C and 30C homeopathic potencies of Arsenicum album (Arsenic trioxide) were given to mice prior to exposure to material doses of arsenic trioxide, as a means of determining whether or not the potentised Arsenicum album had any influence on the effects of arsenic. Mice were divided into 6 groups with 1 group receiving 6C Arsenicum album, another group receiving 30C Arsenicum album, and the remaining 4 groups receiving various control substances. Cellular and various biochemical parameters such as acid and alkaline phosphatases, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase and succinate dehydrogenase were assessed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days from the beginning of the study. On analysis of these results it was found that both the 6C and 30C potencies of Arsenicum album provided protection against the effects of arsenic trioxide, with the 30C providing a slightly better level of protection than the 6C. 
25. Labrecque G., Guilleminot J. Effect of Bryonia on Experimental Arthritis in Rats. ( - Kuinka Bryonia vaikuttaa rottien niveltulehduskokeessa.)  Berlin Journal of Research in Homoeopathy, 1991,1, 3, 169, (Congress Report Poster).
In this study, 35 male rats suffering from arthritis were treated with placebo or 4X, 4C or 9C potencies of homeopathic Bryonia for 15 days and assessed at various stages using grip strength body weight as assessment criteria. At the end of the treatment period, all of the Bryonia potencies had improved the condition when compared to placebo, with Bryonia 4C providing the best outcomes.


 27. Macedo SB, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals.     ( - Arnica montana 6cH´n tulehdusta parantavana tehosi: prekliininen eläintutkimus.)  Homeopathy. 2004, 93, 2, 84-7.                                                                                                                                       Researchers in this study evaluated the protective effect of Arnica 6C on the acute inflammatory effects in mice of carrageenan and the chronic inflammatory effects of Nystatin. Arnica was given prior to the induction of both forms of inflammation and it was found to provide a protective effect against Nystatin, but not carrageenan induced inflammation. 
28. MacLaughlin BW, et al. Effects of homeopathic preparations on human prostate cancer growth in cellular and animal models. ( - Homeopaattisten valmisteiden vaikutukset eturauhassyövän kasvuun solutasolla sekä eläintapauksissa.)  Integr Cancer Ther. 2006, 5, 4, 362-72.
To confirm the effectiveness of the homeopathic treatment of prostate cancer, the researchers in this trial assessed the effects of the homeopathic medicines Sabal serrulata, Conium maculatum and Thuja occidentalis against PC-3 and DU-145 human prostate cancer cell cultures and against the growth of prostate tumors in mice. Sabal reduced the proliferation of the PC-3 cell line by 33% in 72 hours and the DU-145 cell line by 23% in 24 hours. Compared to controls, Sabal also had a statistically significant effect on the tumors suffered by mice. The homeopathic medicines Conium maculatum and Thuja occidentalis showed no beneficial effect on the proliferation of the cell lines or tumors observed in this study.
40. Sakakura CE, et al. Influence of Homeopathic Treatment with Comfrey on Bone Density around Titanium Implants: A Digital Subtraction Radiography Study in Rats. ( - Homeopaattisen rohtoraunioyrttihoidon (Symphytum officinalis) vaikutus luuntiheyteen titaani-implanttien ympärillä: Digitaalinen Subtraction Radiography- tutkimus rotilla.) Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2008, 19, 6, 624-8. 
This controlled trial looked at populations of rats to discover what influence, if any, Symphytum 6C had on improving the density of bone around recent titanium implants. Implants were given to 2 groups of 24 rats; one group was given 10 drops of Symphytum 6C per day and the other was given a similar amount of a control substance. Animals were radiologically assessed for bone density around the implants at the beginning of the study period, and again at 7, 14 and 28 days. Radiographs taken at day 7 showed an increase in bone density over controls, although no statistically significant effect was seen for the radiographs taken on days 14 and 28. 
47. Varshney JP. Clinical management of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs with homeopathic Belladonna 200C: a case series. ( - Koirien Idiopaattisen, muista taudeista riippumattoman, epilepsian kliininen hoito homeopaattisella Belladonna 200C´llä: tapaussarjoja.)  Homeopathy, 2007, 96, 1, 46-48. 
In this uncontrolled study, 10 dogs suffering from idiopathic epilepsy were given 3-4 drops of homeopathic Belladonna 200C during the seizure phase orally at 15min intervals until the seizure activity was reduced, and this was continued then four times daily. Four dogs with head shaking syndrome in addition to seizures were given an additional Cocculus 6C, 3-4 drops orally weekly for 3 months. As a result of this therapy, the numbers of fits reduced to 2-3 during first 2 weeks post-therapy and then became occasional in next 2 weeks. With continuation of Belladonna therapy, no fits were observed during 2-7 months follow-up. In two cases seizures reappeared within 15-25 days of cessation of therapy. Belladonna therapy was resumed and seizure control was again achieved. Owners were advised to continue the therapy at least twice daily until no fits occurred for at least 2 months.  
49. Viriato EP, et al. Study of high dilutions of copaiba oil on inflammatory process. ( - Tutkimus Copaiba-öljyn vaikutus korkeissa laimennoksissa tulehdusprosessiin.)   Int J High Dilution Res 2009, 8, 26, 9-149. 
This trial was a collaborative effort by researchers from several Brazilian universities and was designed to test the hypothesis that Copaiba oil, homeopathically potentised to 30C from either mother tincture or triturate, is as effective as Indomethacin in reducing inflammation induced by carrageenan, and also to determine if it was capable of influencing tissue granulation when compared to conventional treatment. The 30C potency from mother tincture and triturate both reduced inflammation by up to 73%, and Indomethacin reduced inflammation by 55%. In addition, 6C potencies of Copaiba oil were able to produce a 48% inhibition of granulation, compared to a 57% reduction from the use of Dexamethasone. 
51. Marzotto M, et al. Effects of Ignatia amara in mouse behavioural models. ( - Ignatia amara´n vaikutus hiirten (stressi-)käyttäytymiseen.) Homeopathy. 2012, 101, 1, 57-67. 
This University of Verona study adds to previous work done on anxiety in mice and in this case used various potencies of homeopathically prepared Ignatia amara in potentially stressful experimental scenarios. Groups of 8 mice were given a negative (solvent) or positive control (diazepam) substance or Ignatia 4C, 5C, 7C, 9C and 30C and subjected to 5 repetitions of the light-dark test or open-field test in a randomised and blinded manner. Mice were then assessed for their levels of anxiety and capacity for locomotion. Compared to controls a statistically significant association was seen between the Ignatia potencies (particularly the 9C potency) and a reduction in anxiety, without a significant impact on locomotion. 

55. Bellavite P, et al. Homeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel Environments. ( - Homeopaattiset annokset Gelsemium sempervirens´valmistetta parantavat hiirten sopeutumista uusiin ympäristöihin, ja ahdistuneisuuteen.)  Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:362517. 
In yet more interesting work on Gelsemium, researchers from the Department of Morphological Biomedical Sciences at the University of Verona in Italy, build on previous studies to further confirm the role of homeopathically prepared Gelsemium on anxiety. Once again, mice were exposed to potentially anxiety-producing situations such as the light-dark test and open field test after being given various homeopathically prepared 5C, 7C and 30C homeopathic potencies of Gelsemium, or a positive (Diazepam) or negative (solvent) control substance. When compared to the controls, the application of all of the Gelsemium potencies were associated with an improvement in some aspect of anxiety as produced by the test environments. 
57. Klocke P, et al. A randomized controlled trial to compare the use of homeopathy and internal Teat Sealers for the prevention of mastitis in organically farmed dairy cows during the dry period and 100 days post-calving. ( - Kaksoissokkokoe, jossa vertailtiin homeopatian käyttöä ja sisäistä ´Teat Sealers´-menetelmää utaretulehduksen ennaltaehkäisyyn orgaanisesti kasvatetuilla lypsylehmillä kuukautisten aikana sekä 100 päivää vasikoimisen jälkeen.)   Homeopathy. 2010, 99, 2, 90-8. 
Mastitis in organically farmed dairy cows is a major issue since, by definition, organically farmed animals cannot be given antibiotics. To deal with this, Swiss scientists from the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture in Frick sought to come up with a solution using a herd specific homeopathic mixture in cows affected by mastitis. 102 cows were randomly assigned to receive teat sealing via Orbeseal, a sterile, non-antibiotic inflammatory infusion in the form of a viscous paste, the homeopathic mixture or no treatment. All cows were checked for clinical mastitis and somatic cell count for the first 100 days post-calving (milk from cows infected with mastitis generally have higher total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts than milk from uninfected cows). On analysis it was shown that the herd-specific homeopathic was effective in increasing the number of animals with normal milk secretion compared to untreated controls.
61. Rosas-Landa V, Garcia M, Rodriguez R. Evidence for Homeopathic Vaccination? ( - Näyttöä homeopaattisesta rokottamisesta?) Boletin Mexicano de Homeopatia, 1997, 30, 5-10. 
This Mexican research describes the process and outcomes of two pilot studies done to evaluate the immunological response in rabbits to homeopathic preparations made from an oral mycobacterial antigen. In the first study, 1C to 30C homeopathic preparations of the antigen were given to rabbits in their drinking water for one month and assessed against positive and negative controls. All of the homeopathic potencies were associated with the production by the rabbits of antimycobacterial antibody. In the second trial, a tuberculin reaction was assessed after oral administration of the 30C homeopathic potency, and this compared to the reaction to the conventional inoculation. The reaction to the homeopathic potency was comparable to that caused by the conventional inoculate.
63. Oberholzer HM, Pretorius E. Investigating lung remodelling in Modul8 treated BALB/c asthmatic animals. Micron. 2009, 40, 8, 775-82. 
This trial was carried out at the faculty of Health Sciences in South Africa’s University of Pretoria and was performed to investigate what effect, if any, a specific homeopathic combination product (Module8) had against hydrocortisone, compared to a control, in mice suffering from atopic asthma. Assessment was made via the analysis of tissue structures and the numbers of eosinophils found on bronchial lavage before and after treatment. On analysis of the results noted at the end of the trial, the use of hydrocortisone and the homeopathic formula were both associated with a significant reduction in tissue structure changes and eosinophil count. 
66. Sukul A, et al. Altered solution structure of alcoholic medium of potentized Nux vomica underlies its antialcoholic effect. ( - Muunneltu alkoholi-välittäjäaine-rakenneliuos potensoidusta Nux vomica´sta perustana alkoholinvastaiselle vaikutukselle.  Br Homeopath J. 2000, 89, 2, 73-7. 
Researchers from the Department of Zoology at Visva-Bharati University in West Bengal, India explored the notion that homeopathically prepared Nux vomica, in 30C, 200C and 1M homeopathic potencies, could accelerate the recovery from alcohol intoxication. This adds to previous work done in this area and was carried out using a controlled crossover trial design on mice that were exposed to ethanol and then given Nux vomica 30C, 200C, 1M or one of three control substances. When compared to the controls, it was shown that the use all of the Nux vomica potencies was associated with a statistically significant reduction in ethanol intoxication.

68. Rocha MPS, et al. Behavior of rats treated with Rhus toxicodendron 200cH. (- Rottien käytösmuutokset kun niitä hoidettiin Rhus toxicodendron 200cH´lla.)  Int J High Dilution Research, 2008, 7, 22, 3-6. 
The object of this exercise was to determine the effects of homeopathically prepared Rhus tox 200C and diazepam, on hyperactivity and hypoactivity in mice in open field tests, compared to controls. Mice were classified into hyperactive or hypoactive groups and assigned to receive Rhus tox 200C, diazepam or a water control, and their activities in an open field environment observed before and after treatment. Upon analysis it was found that Rhus tox 200C and diazepam both produced statistically significant reductions in hyperactivity when compared to controls. None of the interventions produced a significant effect on hypoactivity. 
71. Bellavite P, et al. Homeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel Environments.( - Homeopaattiset annokset Gelsemium sempervirens´iä parantavat hiirten käyttäytymistä uusissa elinoloissa.) Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011: 362517. Published online 2011 February 15.
Researchers in this study looked at the effects of 5C, 7C and 30C homeopathic potencies of Gelsemium in comparison to the effects of diazepam on the behavioural characteristics of mice when challenged with potentially anxiety-producing situations such as exposure to new environments or environments where cover was limited. Using measurements from these parameters, it was determined that the use of homeopathic Gelsemium was associated with an increase in exploratory behaviour and a reduction in the fear of new environments.

73. Camerlink I, et al. Homeopathy as replacement to antibiotics in the case of Escherichia coli diarrhoea in neonatal piglets. ( - Homeopatian käyttö korvaamaan antibiootteja Escherichia coli´n aiheuttaman ripulin hoidossa.)   Homeopathy, 2010, 99, 1, 57-62. 
This work, performed by a team primarily from the Wageningen University in The Netherlands, concerns the design and outcomes of the homeopathic treatment of piglets suffering from diarrhoea associated with E. coli. 52 sows in their last month of gestation were given either placebo or a homeopathically potentised preparation of E. coli twice weekly for that month. These sows subsequently gave birth to 525 piglets; 265 from the placebo sow group and 260 from the homeopathic E. coli group and all were monitored for E. coli diarrhoea. On analysis of the results from the observations made of both groups, it was found that the piglets from the placebo group had a diarrhoeal incidence that was 6 times higher than the piglets from the homeopathic group.
74. Magnani P, et al, Dose-effect study of Gelsemium sempervirens in high dilutions on anxiety- related responses in mice. ( - Annosvaikutustutkimus Gelsemium sempervirens´istä korkeissa laimennuksissa liittyen hiirten ahdistuneisuusreaktioihin.)  Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010, 210, 4, 533-45. 
Researchers from the University of Verona in Italy carried out this trial on mice to determine whether or not any of five homeopathically potentised preparations of Gelsemium could influence the generation of anxiety. Mice were exposed to Gelsemium 4C, 5C, 7C, 9C and 30C, a positive control substance (Buspirone) or a negative control (the solvent used to produce the Gelsemium potencies) and then challenged with potentially anxiety generating situations, these being open-field tests and light-dark tests. While Gelsemium had little effect on the mice in the open-field test, it did produce a statistically significant reduction in anxiety associated with the light-dark test that was comparable to the effect produced by Buspirone, particularly the Gelsemium preparations potentised to 5C, 9C and 30C. 

78. Sarkar A, et al. Anti-rheumatoid and anti-oxidant activity of homeopathic Guaiacum officinale in an animal model. ( - Reumaa ja niveltulehdusta parantava sekä antioksidanttivaikutus homeopaattisella Guaiacum officinale´lla eläinkokeessa.)  Homeopathy, 2014, 103, 2, 133-8. 
Guaiacum has been used for generations in homeopathy both constitutionally and specifically for musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-rheumatic and anti-oxidant activity of homeopathic preparations of Guaiacum officinale on rats. To do this, a group of rats suffering from rheumatoid arthritis were divided into 6 groups and received Sham control, Arthritis control, Standard treatment (indomethacin), Guaiacum mother tincture, Guaiacum 30C or Guaiacum 200C.These groups were given these interventions for 5 days and anti-rheumatic activity was examined through physical, urinary, serum parameters. These included body weight, ankle and knee diameter, urinary parameters (hydroxyproline), glucosamine, calcium, creatinine, phosphate, serum acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatise, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, superoxide dismutase,, catalase, serum GGT and serum interleukins. When compared to the controls, treatment with all of the 3 forms of Guaiacum was associated with a normalisation of these parameters. 
79. Bellavite P, et al. Mice behavioural models with pooled data analysis of Gelsemium studies and new findings about Ignatia and Aconitum. Int J High Dilution Res, 2011, 10, 36, 198-200 Proceedings of the XXV GIRI Symposium and VIII CBFH; 2011, Sep 04-07; Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) 198. 
In a follow-up to previous work done in this area, researchers from the University of Verona in Italy investigated the anxiolytic properties of homeopathically prepared materials on mice. Using a randomized, blinded and controlled protocol, mice were assigned to be given several one of several homeopathic potencies of Gelsemium, Aconite, Ignatia or material doses of positive controls (diazepam or buspirone) or a negative control (ethanol and water). They were exposed to stressful environmental situations (open field test or light-dark tests) and assessed for anxiety in relation to these environments. Compared to the controls, cumulative analysis of the results demonstrated a highly significant effect of Gelsemium 5C and 30C in both tests and Ignatia 9C in the Light-Dark test. The results indicate an anxiolytic rather than a sedative effect. 

90. Lotfollahzadeh S, et al, The Therapeutic Effect Of Tarentula Cubensis Extract (Theranekron) In Foot-And-Mouth Disease In Cattle: A Randomised Trial In An Endemic Setting. ( - Tarentula Cubensis Extract´in (Theranekron) terapeuttinen vaikutus karjan suu- ja sorkkatautiin: Kaksoissokkokoe laajalle levinneessä ympäristössä.)  Homeopathy, 2012, 101, 159-164. 
Iranian workers from the University of Tehran conducted a randomised controlled clinical trial of a homeopathic preparation of Tarentula cubensis (Theranekron) during an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle in Iran. A single subcutaneous injection of Theranekron was used as sole treatment in 50 infected animals (treatment group). The control group comprised 15 infected animals treated with standard medication including: daily injection of flunixin meglumine and oxytetracycline and daily dressing of lesions with 4% sodium carbonate. Systemic and local signs were recorded over 14 days. Rectal temperature in the treatment group subsided to normal range within 1 day of homeopathic treatment, and was significantly lower in the test group than in the control group on several successive days (P < 0.05). Healing of inflamed mucosal areas and appetite score of the treatment was significantly better than the control during the first 3 days of treatment (P < 0.05) showing that Theranekron is effective for the treatment of systemic and local signs of FMD-infected cattle. 

 106. Sampath S, et al. Effect of Homeopathic Preparations of Syzygium Jambolanum and Cephalandra Indica on Gastrocnemius Muscle of High Fat and High Fructose Induced Type-2 Diabetic Rats. ( - Homeopaattisten valmisteiden: Syzygium Jambolanumin ja Cephalandra Indican, vaikutus rottien Gastrocnemius lihaksen korkeisiin rasva- ja fruktoositasoihin 2-tyypin diabeteksen seurauksena.)    Homeopathy, 2013, 102, 160-171. 
Researchers from India’s Central Council for Research in Homeopathy and University of Madras, looked into the effects on diabetes of homeopathic medicines prepared from Syzygium Jambolanum and Cephalandra Indica- two medicines with a long history of use in diabetes in humans. Homeopathic preparations of Syzygium and Cephalandra in mother tincture, 6C and 30C, were used to examine the molecular mechanism of antidiabetic effects in the skeletal muscle of rats with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Positive (metformin and streptozotocin) and negative (diluent) controls were also used After 30 days of treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and insulin signalling molecules in the skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) were measured. The rats given the homeopathics showed a significant decrease in serum insulin and lipid profile as well as low levels of insulin receptor (IR), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt), p-Aktser473 and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein expression (p < 0.05) with a significant increase in fasting blood glucose level (p < 0.05), compared to the controls. Treatment with homeopathic medicines significantly increased the serum insulin and expression of these proteins (p < 0.05) with a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (p < 0.05). 


- Tutkimukset kasveilla - 23 kpl
1. Baumgartner S., Thurneysen A., Heusser P. Growth stimulation of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) through homeopathic potencies of plant growth substances. ( - Kasvatuskoe miniherneillä (Pisum sativum L.)  kasvinkasvatusaineiden homeopaattisia laimennoksia käyttäen.)  Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004, 11, 5,:281-92. 
In an effort to determine the effects of homeopathically potentised plant growth substances on the shoot growth characteristics of dwarf peas, plant cultures were immersed for 24 hours in solutions containing 4 different plant growth substances in 12X to 30X potencies. These were compared to cultures grown in a control substance. At shoot length measurement after a 14 day growth period, the cultures grown in the potentised growth substances showed a measurable effect on the seed growth characteristics when compared to the control substance, the most notable of these, gibberellin 17X, producing the largest growth stimulation. 
2. Baumgartner S, et al. Reproducibility of dwarf pea shoot growth stimulation by homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid. Complement Ther Med. 2008, 16, 4, 183-91. 
In this Swiss study, which was slight variation of previous work done in this area by Hamman and others, dwarf pea seedlings in 4 batches containing seeds taken from adult plants in 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000, were exposed to 17X and 18X potencies of Gibberellic acid (GA) and cultivated under controlled conditions, alongside dwarf pea seedlings that had received the same level of exposure to 2 negative control substances. GA in material doses is often used commercially to break periods of dormancy in seeds and has the capacity to stimulate the growth of seedlings and it’s an endogenous component of some seeds and is involved in the growth of seeds and alpha amylase activity within the plant.. After 14 days all of these seedlings had their lengths measured and at this point it was found that the controls had performed as predicted, the 1997 seedling batch previously exposed to GA 17X and GA 18X had exceeded the growth rate of the controls by an average of 11.2% and the 1998 batch responded with a mixture of either stimulation or suppression of growth. Batches from 1999 and 2000 failed to respond to either potency of GA. 
 
3. Binder M, Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A. The effects of a 45x potency of arsenicum album on wheat seedling growth -- a reproduction trial. ( - 45-kertaisesti potensoidun Arsenicum albumin vaikutus vehnänidun kasvuun - kasvattamiskoe.)  Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005, 12, 5, 284-91.
In a repeat performance of the previous trial, wheat seedlings previously exposed to sub- lethal doses arsenic were cultivated in either Arsenicum album 45X, water 45X or un-potentised water, and the seedling height measured at 7 days. The experiment was independently reproduced 8 times and after the results were collated the wheat seedlings cultivated in Arsenicum 45X showed a significant reduction in height when compared to the 2 controls.
6. Endler PC, Pongratz W. Homoeopathic Effect of a Plant Hormone? ( - Kasvihormonin homeopaattinen vaikutus?) Berlin J on Res in Hom, 1991, 1, 3, 148-150. 
This study showed that Indole Butyric Acid, known at material levels to enhance the growth of new roots and leaves from plant slips, at a 33X potency, continued to provide an enhancement of growth 
7. Jones RL, Jenkins MD. Plant Responses to Homoeopathic Medicines. ( - Kasvien vasteet homeopaattisille lääkkeille.)  British Homeopathic Journal, 1981, 70, 3, 120-146. 
The authors of this work set out to study the effects of various homeopathic potencies of Silver nitrate on the growth characteristics of the leaf sheaths of wheat. On analysis of the results they found that potencies of silver nitrate were in fact able to either inhibit or stimulate growth, depending upon the potency applied. 

9. Bonfim FPG, et al. Germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) pelleted with homeopathic preparations Alumina and Calcarea carbonica subjected to toxic levels of aluminium. Int J High Dilution Res 2010, 9, 33, 138-146. 
Researchers from three different universities in Brazil were involved in this study that adds to previous work looking at the effects of homeopathically prepared materials on plants. Lettuce seedlings intoxicated with aluminium were exposed to homeopathically prepared Alumina 6C, Alumina 12C, Calc carb 6C, Carb 12C, or two controls. Outcomes were assessed using germination percentage, germination speed index and radicle length. On analysis and when compared to controls a statistically significant association was found between all of the homeopathically prepared substances and germination speed index, radicle length and germination index.

10. Marques RM, Marques-Silva GG, Bonato CM. Effects of high dilutions of lCymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronela) on the germination and growth of seedlings of Sida rhombifolia. Int J High Dilution Res
 
11. Gangar H.U. Management and Control of Genetic Processes in Cotton Plants through Homoeopathy.  ( - Puuvillakasvin käsittely ja sen geneettisten prosessien kontrollointi homeopatialla.)                 Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy, 2007, 1, 1, 1-5, 
In this Indian research, the effects of homeopathically prepared solutions on a broad range of parameters, using plants as the subjects, were measured. The homeopathic solutions were used in CM (100,000C) potencies and made from differing source materials. These were then assessed for their capacity to influence growth, germination, flowering and fruiting of cotton plants, compared to inactive dilutions applied in the same manner. In all cases, the homeopathically prepared solutions had a clear and objective effect on the parameter assessed. Work was also done here which confirmed that different potencies of different homeopathic drugs have a remedy-specific electrical charge. 
12. Rossi F, et al. Application of homeopathic remedy Carbo vegetabilis and development of plants of Lettuce. ( - Homeopaattisen Carbo vegetabiliksen käyttäminen lehtisalaatin kasvattamisessa.)  Int J High Dilution Research, 2006, 5, 17, 23-30. 
A significant amount of work has been done to determine the effect effects of homeopathically prepared substances have on plants. This study sought to investigate the effect of a number of different potencies of the homeopathic product, Carbo vegetalis, on the development of seedlings of the lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Lettuce seedlings housed in an environment likely to induce stress, a shaded greenhouse and a greenhouse in full sun, were exposed to Carbo veg 6C, 12C, 30C, 100C or one of 2 control substances. An analysis of the results confirmed the action of Carbo veg in these environments, with the 100C have the most notable effect on seedlings grown in the stressed environment. 
13. Sukul S, Mondal S, Sukul NC. Sepia 200 cH in 1:1,000 dilution counteracts the effect of salt stress in cowpea seedlings but vehicle 90% ethanol proves ineffective in the same dilution.  ( - Sepia 200 cH 1:1,000-liuksena tekee tehottomaksi suolan aiheuttaman stressin pitkäpavulla, mutta 90% etanoli osoittautuu tehottomaksi samassa laimennoksessa.)  Int J High Dilution Res, 2012, 11, 41, 237-246. 
Work carried out at the Department of Botany, Visva-Bharati University in West Bengal, looked at the influence of homeopathically prepared Sepia 200C on the very common problem experienced by those growing cowpea in soil with rising salinity levels- salt stress. To do this, the team grew cowpea seedlings over moist filter paper in Petri dishes and divided them into 4 groups: (1) control in sterile water, (2) in 50 mM NaCl solution, (3) seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50 mM NaCl solution, and (4) seeds pretreated with Sep 200C diluted with water 1:100 and transferred to 50 mM NaCl solution. The data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Student’s t-test and this showed that, compared to controls, Sepia 200C significantly increased the growth, sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content of the seedlings, thereby confirming that it counteracted the effects of salt stress. 
14. Trebbi G, et al. Phytopathological and nutraceutical evaluation of cauliflower plants treated with high dilutions of arsenic trioxide. ( - Kukkakaalin kasvitautiopillinen sekä ravintotieteellinen arviointi korkeapotenssisen asreenitrioksidikäsittelyn jälkeen.)  Int J High Dilution Res, 2012, 11, 40, 161-162. Proceedings of the XXVI GIRI Symposium; 2012, Sep 20-22; Florence (Italy). 
The fungus, Alternaria brassicicola, is a common cause of dark leaf spot disease in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.). In this study, researchers from the University of Bologna tested the antifungal capacity of homeopathically prepared Arsenic trioxide 35X and Cuprum metallicum 5X and compared to controls. 2 experiments were performed. In the first, spore suspensions were prepared in the test substances and their inhibiting effect on germination was recorded microscopically after incubation at 25°C for 5 hours. In the second experiment, the same treatments were tested on plants artificially inoculated with the fungus. To do this the test field in which the plants were to be grown was divided into plots according to a complete randomized block design. In the first trial, plants were artificially inoculated and treated every week; the infection level was evaluated on cauliflower heads. The second trial was performed on the same field with the aim to induce a natural infection, mediated by infected crop residues. Measurement endpoints concerned the evaluation of some physiological parameters along with the glucosinolate content on cauliflower heads. On analysis, the team found that Arsenic 35X and Cuprum 5X induced a significant decrease of mean infection level (-50%). In addition, physiological and nutraceutical analyses of healthy heads demonstrated that Arsenicum induced a significant increase of both head size and glucosinolate content. 
15. Betti L, et al. Effectiveness of ultra high diluted arsenic is a function of succussion number as evidenced by wheat germination test and droplet evaporation method. ( - Erittäin paljon laimennetun arseenin tehokkuuden funktion laimennusluku on todistettu vehnän itämistestillä ja pisaran haihdutusmenetelmällä.)   Int J High Dilution Res, 2013, 12, 44, 127-128. Proceedings of the XXVII GIRI Symposium; 2013, Sep 03-04; Bern (Switzerland) 127. 
This Italian research was performed to determine what effect, if any, the number of successions used in the preparation of a homeopathic medicine, has on its activity. Previous research has shown that homeopathically prepared potencies applied to arsenic-stressed wheat seeds stimulates their germination rate. In this study multiple replications of this model were employed using controls and a 45X homeopathic potency of arsenic trioxide succussed 4, 8, 16, 32, 40, 70 and 100 times. On analysis of the results it was shown that increasing the number of the succussions increased the activity of the arsenic 45X. 
16. Banerjee P, Sukul S.Cuprum Sulphuricum - a homeopathic drug can combating toxic effect of Cu, promote seed germination and peroxidase activity in Vigna unguiculata. ( - Cuprum sulfuricum - homeopaattinen lääke, pystyy taistelemaan kurparin myrkkyvaikutusta vastaan, edistämään siementen itämistä sekä peroksidaasin aktiivisuutta Vigna unguiculata-kasvissa.)    Int J High Dilution Res, 2013, 12, 44, 129-130. Proceedings of the XXVII GIRI Symposium; 2013, Sep 03-04; Bern (Switzerland) 129. 
High concentration of copper can cause toxic effects in some plants due to its redox properties and can catalyze free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species and peroxide compounds. This Indian study was performed to examine the effect of homeopathically prepared copper sulphate 200C on seed germination of Vigna unguiculata. 3 sets of 100 seeds were prepared for germination. 2 sets were soaked in copper sulphate 200C and the third in a control substance. All were then exposed to material doses of copper sulphate. The seedling weight and length of germinating axis were observed after 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Water uptake percentages were recorded, total protein, chlorophyll, soluble and insoluble sugar were measured and the activity of peroxidase was determined. The results confirmed that in all the parameters observed, copper sulphate 200C-treated seeds showed significant changes as compared to controls. 
17. Sukul NM, Chakraborty I, Sukul A. Potentized Cina reduces root-knot nematode in infestation of cucumber and the antinematode effect is transmitted through water. ( - Potensoitu Cina vähentää juuriäkämäsukkulamadon kurkuille aiheuttamaa tuholaisvaivaa, joka leviää veden välityksellä.)                Int J High Dilution Res, 2013, 12, 44, 133-134. Proceedings of the XXVII GIRI Symposium; 2013, Sep 03-04; Bern (Switzerland) 133. 
Root-knot nematodes belonging to Meloidogyne incognita are responsible for substantial loss in yield of vegetable crops all over the world. Chemical nematicides are expensive, cause environmental pollution and leave toxic residues in crops. In this Indian research, homeopathically prepared Cina was investigated for its properties as a nematicide and whether these properties could be dispersed through water. To do this, aseptically germinated seeds of cucumber, (Cucumis sativus L) were grown in sterlised pots. The pots were divided into 5 groups (10 pots per group): (i) uninoculated untreated, (ii) inoculated untreated, (iii) inoculated and treated with Cina 200C , (iv) inoculated and treated indirectly by connection with wet cotton threads to group (iii) and (v) inoculated and treated with Ethanol 200C as a remedy control. Groups (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) were inoculated with the second stage larvae of Meloidogyne incognita when the plants were at six leave stage. Just before inoculation plants of group (iii) and (iv) were connected leaf by leaf by wet cotton threads encased in polythene tubes. Then plants of group (iii) were directly pretreated by foliar spray with Cina 200C diluted with distilled water (1:500). Two days after inoculation plants of group (iii) were treated again with Cina 200C in a similar way. After 2 weeks all the plants were harvested and measured for shoot length, shoot weight, root length, root weight, numbers of leaves per plant, leaf area, root gall number per plant, nematode population in roots and rhizospheric soil, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf sugar, protein content and root protein content. Analysis of the data showed a strong association between the use of Cina 200C, a reduction in nematode population, and a significant reduction in their effects. The data also showed that these effects were transferred through water.
18. Fagan V, et al. High dilution of Belladonna affect the mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola in vitro. ( - Belladonna-liuos vaikuttaa Corynespora cassiicola´n huovaston kasvuun in vitro-kokeessa.)       Int J High Dilution Res, 2011, 10, 36, 245-248. Proceedings of the XXV GIRI Symposium and VIII CBFH; 2011, Sep 04-07; Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) 245. 
In this work from the State University of Maringá in Brazil, researchers sought to trial the use of homeopathically prepared Belladonna against the growth of spores from the fungus Corynespora cassiicola, which is associated with Target Spot disease, a problem that causes infection in various crops such as soybeans and is endemic to Brazil. This is a significant issue for organic farmers who are prohibited from using agricultural chemicals to control it. To test the effectiveness of this protocol, agar growth plates were produced and to these were added filtered Belladonna in 6X, 12X, 24X or 30X potencies or a filtered control (distilled water). The fungal isolate was peaked and grown and a disc of the fungal mycelia placed in the centre of each plate. The plates were incubated and checked daily for fungal growth from the disc for 12 days. The results showed that all of the potencies of Belladonna were effective in reducing the mycelial growth of the fungus when compared to control, with the best results achieved with the 30X potency. 
19. Barbosa IS, et al. Evaluation of the effects of homeopathic medicines on the germination seeds of Brassica oleracea l. ar. Italica. ( - Homeopattisten lääkkeiden vaikutuksen arviointi Brassica oleracea I. ar. Italica´n siementen itämiseen.Int J High Dilution Res, 2012, 11, 40, 213-214. Proceedings of the XXVI GIRI Symposium; 2012, Sep 20-22; Florence (Italy). 
Scientists from the Federal Institute of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in an effort to reduce the dependence on agricultural chemicals, designed an experiment to determine the effects of homeopathically prepared Phosphorus on the germination of seeds from Brassica oleracea (Broccoli). Broccoli seeds were grown in multiple sets and exposed to Phosphorus 6C, 30C, 200C or 2 controls, every 2 days for 10 days, and assessed for germination percentage and germination speed index. An analysis of the results showed that when compared to the controls, seeds under the influence of Phosphorus 6C showed a significant increase in germination speed. 
20. Datta S, et al. Potentized Sucrose alters growth, sugar, protein and chlorophyll content in cowpea seedlings. ( - Potensoitu sakkaroosi muuntaa kasvua, sokeri-, proteiini- ja klorofyllimääriä pitkäpavun taimilla.)  Int J High Dilution Res, 2013, 12, 44, 137-138. Proceedings of the XXVII GIRI Symposium; 2013, Sep 03-04; Bern (Switzerland) 137. 
Scientists from Calcutta University performed this work to measure the effects of homeopathically prepared sucrose on various physiological parameters in cowpea seedlings. To do this, cowpea seeds were sterilized and allowed to germinate in petri dishes over moist filter papers. Immediately after germination they were divided into two groups. While one group was treated with Sucrose 30C diluted with distilled water 1:500, the other group was treated with Ethanol 30CH, diluted with water 1:500. After treatment the seedlings were transferred to separate petri dishes and allowed to grow for 72 hours. Samples of seedlings from each treatment group were weighed, kept at 70 degrees Celsius for 24 hours and weighed again. Another sample from each group was analysed for their sugar, protein and chlorophyll content. Leaf and cotyledon sections were examined for changes in the epidermal cells of cotyledons and density and morphology of stomata. It was shown that Sucrose 30C induced significant changes in water content, chlorophyll, sugar and protein content in the seedlings as compared to the control. Sucrose 30C also increased stomata density in the leaves significantly and there was a marked change in the structure of epidermal cells of cotyledons.
22. Dinelli G, et al. Different Approaches in Homeopathic Basic Research: Plant-Based Bioassays and Evaporation-Induced Crystallization. ( - Erilaisia lähestymistapoja homeopatian perustutkimukseen: Kasviperäisiä bioanalyysejä ja haihduttamiskiteytyksiä.) Homeopathy, 2016, 105, 12. 
Italian researches from the University of Bologna carried this work out to confirm the effects of homeopathically prepared Arsenic in the form of As2O3 45X on the growth of wheat seedlings. The results demonstrated a significant increase of germination rate and stalk growth with respect to control. Further work was done using this model to determine the effects of temperature, the time taken for the germination effects to become apparent, succussion number and potency level, as well as gene expression, on the wheat-germination effects of As2O3. From these experiments it was shown that As2O3 45X heated to 20 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 70 degrees C, induced a significant increase of germination rate vs. control, losing its effectiveness at 100 degrees C. A2O3 45x induced a stimulating effect on germination, that reached significance only after three months from beginning treatment. In regard to the number of succussions used to prepare the As2O3, a significant increase of germination was obtained starting from 32 succussions between each dilution step for As 45x. Homeopathic potencies from 5X to 60X were prepared and the data showed an oscillatory trend, with some potencies inducing a significant decrease (35X), while others a significant increase of germination rate (5X, 30X, 40X, 45X, 55X, 60X). In regard to gene expression, a massive reduction of gene expression levels to values comparable to those of the control group, induced by As2O3 45x, was observed for several functional classes of genes. In an extension to this, the research team sought to verify whether the droplet evaporation method (DEM) for crystal formation can be applied to assess the effectiveness of homeopathic medicines. They studied the shape characteristics of the polycrystalline structures formed during droplet evaporation of wheat seed leakages. The results showed that As2O3 45x increased the local connected fractal dimension levels and bilateral symmetry exactness values in the polycrystalline structures, as compared to the water treatment.
23. Marotti I, et al. Transcriptome Profiling Of Wheat Seedlings Following Treatment With Ultrahigh Diluted Arsenic Trioxide. ( - Vehnäntaimien transkriptio-profilointi käytettäessä niille erittäin paljon laimennettua arseenitrioksidi-käsittelyä.)  Evid Based Complement Altern Med, 2014:851263. doi: 10.1155/2014/851263. 
   This Italian study, conducted by workers from the University of Bologna and others, was done to test whether 7-day-old wheat seedlings, grown from seeds either poisoned with a sublethal dose of As2O3 (Arsenic trioxide or Arsenicum album) or un-poisoned, showed significant differences in gene expression profiles after the application of homeopathically prepared As2O3 compared to water (control). The results provided evidence for a strong gene modulating effect of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 in seedlings grown from poisoned seeds: a massive reduction of gene expression levels to values comparable to those of the control group was observed for several functional classes of genes. A plausible hypothesis is that homeopathically prepared As2O3 treatment induced a re-equilibration of those genes that were up-regulated during the oxidative stress by bringing the expression levels closer to the basal levels normally occurring in the control plants. 
- In-Vitro-tutkimukset - 61

2. Belon P, et al. Inhibition of Human Basophil Degranulation by Successive Histamine Dilutions. Inflammation Research, 1999, 48, Supplement 1, S17-18. 
In this controversial, blinded multi-centre trial (which confirmed earlier studies published in Nature in 1988), homeopathic potencies of histamine were found to substantially reduce the potential for degranulation by sensitised basophils when exposed to allergens. 
4. Casaroli- Marano RP, Alegre J, Campos B. Infrared Changes in Potentised Solutions. Revista Homeopatica, 1998, 38, 5- 12. 
In this experiment, 70% alcohol/water solutions were serially diluted 1 in 100 up to 30 times, with and without succussion at each step. On examination of each of these significant spectral differences were found between the solutions that were succussed and those that were not, indicating that dilution and succussion may produce structural changes to the molecules in the solution. This may provide further evidence for the possibility of a “memory” of water. 
5. Chirila M, et al. The Action of Succussed Substances on the Human Lymphocytes and PMN Granulocytes in Vitro Stimulated with Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and Zymosin Opsonised (ZO). Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, 1991, Congress Report, 1, 3, 166-167. 
Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from people with a history of allergy to bee products (Group 1), and from people who were immunosuppressed (Group 2). These cells were incubated in culture media supplemented with a succussed water control, various homoeopathic potencies of bee venom (for Group 1 cells), or cortisone (for Group 2 cells), and the cells were grown. The proliferation of Group 1 cells was inhibited by the potencies of bee venom, indicating that these remedies may be useful in the management of allergies to bee products. The effects of the potencies of cortisone on the Group 2 cells varied from stimulation to inhibition. 

8. Enbergs H. Effects of the homeopathic preparation Engystol on interferon-gamma production by human T-lymphocytes. Immunol Invest. 2006, 35, 1, 19-27. 
In one of the few experiments carried out in this area to date, researchers conducting this study collected T-lymphocytes from 30 healthy human volunteers to investigate the ability or otherwise of a homeopathic combination product to increase the production of interferon-gamma from these cells. After exposure to various concentrations of this combination, when compared to control cells, interferon-gamma producing cell levels were increased by a means of 20.9% to over 24% with no dose-dependence of the effect at the concentrations tested. 

12. Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P. Antiviral Action of Euphorbium Compositum and its Componants. Forschende Komplementarmedizin Und Klassiche Naturheikunde, 2001, 8, 207-212. 
In this in-vitro study, human cell cultures were infected with influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human rhinovirus or herpes simplex virus type1, and then treated with Euphorbium compositum, a homeopathic complex. Various anti-viral drugs such as acyclovir, rabavirin and amatadine were used as positive controls against which to compare the results of the complex. When compared with control cells exposed to the same concentration of ethanol used in the complex, the homeopathic complex showed anti-viral properties comparable to the effects of the drugs against respiratory syncitial virus and herpes simplex virus type 1. 
13. Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P, Weiser M. Influence of homeopathically processed Coenzyme Q10 on proliferation and redifferentiation of endothelial cells. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004, 11, 5,:267-73. 
CoEnzyme Q10, known for its ability to regulate cell metabolism and proliferation, was assessed for its ability to promote the same functions after being homeopathically potentised. Undifferentiated human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures were exposed to various potencies of CoQ10 (5X to 10X) The cell division rate was then assessed by flow cytometry and cell differentiation determined by von Willebrand factor expression. The 7X to 10X potencies of CoQ10, and particularly the 8X potency, increased cell proliferation while none of the potencies appeared to enhance cell differentiation.
16. Pathak S, et al. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer. Int J Oncol. 2003, 23, 4, 975-82. 
In this uncontrolled study, 15 people suffering from various intracranial tumors were treated with a combination Ruta 6C and homoeopathic calcium phosphate. All forms of tumors, particularly gliomas, were found to regress under treatment with these medicines and the trial subjects also exhibited an increase in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. Further examination of a possible mechanism for the tumor-killing effect of this combination found that it was due to cancer cell telomere erosion, causing a selective early death of these cells. 
18. Ramachandran C, et al. Investigation of cytokine expression in human leukocyte cultures with two immune-modulatory homeopathic preparations. J Altern Complement Med. 2007, 13, 4, 403-7. 
The aim of the researchers from Miami Children's Hospital in Florida who carried out this study was to determine the effects of homeopathics on cellular signalling pathways, specifically, the effects of 2 anti- influenza homeopathic combination products on normal human leukocyte cultures. When the researchers compared the effects of the homeopathic combinations to 20% ethanol solvent controls, it was found that exposure to either of the homeopathic combinations stimulated the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines by these cells. 
19. Singh L.M., Gupta G. Antiviral Efficacy of Homeopathic Drugs against Animal Viruses. British Homeopathic Journal, 1985, July, 74, 168-174. 
Researchers at the Indian Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow carried out this study to determine the inhibiting effects, if any, of various potencies of 10 homeopathic remedies on chicken embryo virus and simliki forest virus, a virus capable of causing encephalitis, paralysis ad death in mice. Homeopathic typhoidinum 200C, hydrophobinum 1M, tuberculinum 1M, nux vomica 200C and malandrinum 1M all produced 100% inhibition of the chicken embryo virus. 
22. Walchli C, Baumgartner S, Bastide MJ. Effect of low doses and high homeopathic potencies in normal and cancerous human lymphocytes: an in vitro isopathic study. Altern Complement Med. 2006, 12, 5, 421-7. 
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pretreatment with either low doses, or homeopathic potencies, of cadmium chloride on the ability of normal lymphocyte or cancerous lymphocyte cultures to withstand exposure to toxic doses of cadmium. Normal lymphocytes exposed to toxic levels of cadmium which were pretreated with either low dose of cadmium or potentised cadmium showed a significant increase in viability. This effect was the same in the cancerous lymphocytes except that these cells showed no increase in viability after pre-treatment with potentised cadmium. 
23. Witt CM, et al. The In-Vitro Evidence for an Effect of High Homeopathic Potencies--a Systematic Review of the Literature. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2007, 15, 2, 128-38. 
This was essentially a meta-analysis of all of the in-vitro studies that have attempted to demonstrate a homeopathic effect to date, carried out by Professor Claudia Witt and colleagues at the Department of Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center in Berlin, Germany. The aim here was to search all appropriate databases for relevant studies, determine which studies met the quality criteria set by the researchers, and then to determine which, if any of these, exhibited a statistically significant effect in this area. 67 papers were identified that met the quality criteria and of these, 73% found that an effect from high potencies can be demonstrated. The majority of these studies involved the effects of potentised substances on basophils. Replication of some of these studies has been carried out. 
 26. Ive EC, Couchman IM, Reddy L. Therapeutic Effect of Arsenicum album on Leukocytes. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(3):3979-87. 
Scientists from South Africa’s Durban University of Technology performed this in vitro study to determine the effects of various succussed and unsuccussed homeopathically prepared Arsenic trioxide (Arsenicum album) on human T lymphocytes grown in tissue culture. Cells were intoxicated with arsenic trioxide and then exposed to succussed and unsuccussed Arsenicum 6C, succussed and unsuccussed Arsenicum 30C, succussed and unsuccussed Arsenicum 200C or a control substance for 24, 48 or 72 hours. Cells were assessed for viability at baseline and at these three data points. After the counts from these data points were assessed it was shown that when compared to controls, all of the homeopathically prepared Arsenicum potencies provided a statistically significant increase in cell viability. These results were unaffected by whether the material was succussed or unsuccussed, but were affected by the length of exposure time to the remedy. 
27. De A, et al. Potentized homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and up-regulates expression of arsenic resistance gene in arsenine- exposed bacteria Escherichia coli. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012, 10, 2, 210-27. 
In more useful work from India’s University of Kalyani, researchers looked into the effects of homeopathically prepared Arsenic trioxide (Arsenicum album) on arsenic toxicity in E. coli. The bacteria were grown in a sub- bacteriocidal concentration of sodium arsenite and exposed to Arsenicum 30C or several controls via a randomised schedule and were assessed for glucose uptake, specific activities of hexokinase, lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, intra- and extra-cellular sodium arsenite content, cell growth, cell membrane potential, DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species, adenosine triphosphate, free glutathione content and expressions of arsB and ptsG genes. On analysis and in comparison to the controls used, it was found that the use of Arsenicum 30C was associated with a reduced arsenic toxicity in E. coli by inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species and increasing the tolerance to arsenite. 
28. Coelho Moreira CO, et al. Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by activated Cebus apella macrophages treated with a complex homeopathic immune response modifiers. Homeopathy. 2012, 101, 1, 74-9. 
In more work done to validate the effects of the homeopathic combination, Canova, researchers at Brazil’s Universidade Federal do Pará investigated the in vitro effects of this product on macrophages and the subsequent effects of these upon lymphocytes. Macrophages from tufted capuchin monkeys in culture were exposed to Canova. These macrophages were then co-cultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes. The analysis of Canova effects in the cultured lymphocytes was performed according to the cell cycle phase using flow cytometry and further assessed by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay for Interferon gamma and Interleukin-5 cytokines. On examination of the results it was shown that the use of Canova was associated with an increase in the number of proliferation lymphocytes and in the levels of interferon gamma and interleukin-5 cytokines. 
29. Guimarães FS, et al. Stimulation of lymphocyte anti-melanoma activity by co-cultured macrophages activated by complex homeopathic medication. BMC Cancer. 2009, Aug 22, 9, 293. 
This study, carried out by a team from Brazil’s Universidade Federal do Paraná, sought to determine the effects of a complex of homeopathically prepared ingredients on the in-vitro response to melanoma cells. To do this, mouse lymph node lymphocytes were co-cultured with macrophages in the presence or absence of the homeopathic complex, and B16F10 melanoma cells; a particularly aggressive melanoma cell line. When compared to controls, it was found that the lymphocyte and macrophage cultures exposed to the homeopathic complex had greater anti-melanoma activity, reducing melanoma cell density and increasing the numbers of lysed tumor cells. 
30. Frenkel M, et al. Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology. 2010, 36: 2, 395-403. 
This University of Texas study was done to determine the in- vitro cytotoxic effects of homeopathically potentised Carcinosin 30C, Conium 3C, Phytolacca 200C, Thuja 30C, and succussed and unsuccussed negative solvent controls on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines in tissue culture and a normal human cell line in tissue culture. On analysis, it was shown the use of homeopathically prepared Carcinosin and Phytolacca were associated with a reduction in the viability of the adenocarcinomatous cells, an increase in the rate of cell death, a preferential loss of telomeric DNA and early apoptosis induction from and of these cells. 
32. Guimaraes F de SF, et al. In vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of a Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8) treatment in a murine melanoma model. BMC Cancer 2010, 10:113 doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-113. 
This Brazilian study adds to previous work done to determine the anticancer effects of a combination product containing 10 homeopathically potentised substances, of which Calc carb 5C is the primary ingredient. B16F10 melanoma cells (a particularly aggressive cell line) in tissue culture were co-cultured with macrophages and lymphocytes. These were exposed to the homeopathic combination product and the results compared with an uninocculated control. On analysis it was shown that the homeopathic combination product was associated with an increase in the capacity of the lymphocytes in the tissue culture to destroy growing cancer cells, as well as an increase in the proportion of CD25+ lymphocytes and an increase in lymphocyte viability. 

35. Gupta G, Srivastava AK. In-vitro activity of Thuja occidentalis Linn. against human pathogenic aspergilla. The Homoeopathic Heritage, 2002, 27, 1, 5-12. 
This Indian research investigated whether or not homeopathically prepared Thuja has an in-vitro fungicidal effect on pathogenic Aspergillus niger and flavus. Pathogenic strains of these organisms were grown by standard laboratory means and were exposed to 30C, 200C, 1M, 10M and 50M homeopathically prepared potencies of Thuja occidentalis as well as two negative controls I(water and ethanol) and a positive control (Ketaconazole). After incubation the cultures where measured to determine the extent of growth inhibition. All of the Thuja potencies showed some effect against both species of aspergillus, but when compared to the negative controls, the 30c and 200C potencies showed the greatest effect. In addition, the 30C potency proved to have a 93% equivalence to Ketoconazole and the 200C exhibited an 89% equivalence.
40. Hostanska K, et al. Effect of two homeopathic remedies at different degrees of dilutions on the wound closure of 3T3 fibroblasts in in vitro scratch assay. Int J High Dilution Res, 2012; 11, 40, 164-165. Proceedings of the XXVI GIRI Symposium; 2012, Sep 20-22; Florence (Italy). 
Swiss scientists performed this trial to determine the extent to which two homeopathic combination products (Similasan Arnica plus and SIM WuS) could influence the activity of cultured fibroblasts, and thereby demonstrate a possible role in wound healing. In doing this, cell proliferation, cell migration and the wound closure promoting effect of the homeopathic preparations and negative controls were investigated on mouse fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth was assessed using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined wound area. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. On analysis of the results, compared to the control, it was found that cell viability and proliferation were unaffected by either of the homeopathic combinations. Similisan did exert a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (32% vs 15% for the control). Similisan also promoted in-vitro wound closure by 60% vs 22% for the control.
44. Rajan A, Bagai U. Antimalarial potential of homeopathic medicines against schizont maturation of Plasmodium berghei in short-term in vitro culture. Int J High Dilution Res, 2012, 11, 41, 224-236. 
Scientists from the Department of Zoology in the Panjab University at Chandigarh in India performed this in-vitro experiment to discover what effect, if any, various dilutions of homeopathically prepared materials would have on the viability of Plasmodium berghei, a parasite commonly implicated in malaria, when compared to the action of chloroquine. Using the in-vitro schizont maturation inhibition assay, P. berghei was cultured, and at the intra-erythrocyte phase of its life cycle, exposed to mother tincture, 6C, 30C or 200C homeopathic preparations of China officinalis, Chelidonium majus or Arsenicum album, or material doses of chloroquine. Significant reduction of the growth of intra- erythrocyte stages of P. berghei was observed with the decreasing dilutions of mother tincture and the various potencies of China, Chelidonium and Arsenicum, exhibiting a dose-dependent effect. Maximum schizont maturation inhibition (80%) was observed with China mother tincture, China 30C and Chelidonium 30C, with chloroquine providing an inhibition of 95%. Arsenicum 30C provided an inhibition of 75%. 
46. Naoual B, Stéphane C, Terzan L. Assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of homeopathic Arnica Montana. Int J High Dilution Res, 2013; 12(44):121-122. Proceedings of the XXVII GIRI Symposium; 2013, Sep 03-04; Bern (Switzerland) 121. 
This study was done in two parts; in-vitro and in- vivo. The aim of the in-vitro trial was to measure the effect of Arnica montana 5C on the expression of intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in the inflammatory process and immune response. These cells were cultured and exposed to either Arnica or a placebo and assayed for molecular expression, after which it was shown that Arnica significantly attenuated ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells compared to placebo, thereby displaying a significant endothelial anti-inflammatory effect. The in-vivo part looked at the effect of different homeopathic potencies of Arnica montana versus placebo, in the regeneration of skeletal muscle and inflammatory parameters in rats after injury. The results for this part of the study weren’t quite as successful as the in-vitro arm but did show an increase in the ratio of M2 to M1 macrophages, indicating a reduction in inflammation. 
47. da Silva RMRJ, et al. Analysis of in vitro activity of high dilutions of Euphorbia tirucalli L. in human melanoma cells. Int J High Dilution Res, 2011, 10, 36, 183-193 Proceedings of the XXV GIRI Symposium and VIII CBFH; 2011, Sep 04-07; Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) 183. 
Brazilian researchers set out to determine what effects, if any, homeopathically prepared potencies of latex and tincture of Euphorbia tirucalli have on the proliferation of cultured human melanoma cells. The cultured cells were exposed to 5C, 15C and 30C homeopathic potencies of the latex and mother tincture as well as an ethanol and water control, and monitored via MTT assay for 24 to 72 hours. Compared to the control, all of the test solutions appeared to exert a proliferation inhibition, with the Euphorbia tirucalli 30C prepared from mother tincture exhibiting the strongest inhibition (32.1%).
49. Arora S, et al. Anti-proliferative effects of homeopathic medicines on human kidney, colon and breast cancer cells. Homeopathy, 2013, 102, 4, 274-82. 
This study set out to investigate the potential cytotoxicity of homeopathic mother tinctures and 30C, 200C, 1M and 10M homeopathic potencies of Sarsaparilla, Ruta graveolens and Phytolacca decandra, against cell lines deriving from tumors of particular organs. Sarsaparilla was tested against ACHN cells from human renal adenocarcinoma as well as non-malignant Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Ruta was tested against COLO-205 cells from human colorectal carcinoma, and Phytolacca was tested against MCF-7 cells from human breast carcinoma. Cytotoxicity was measured using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, anti-proliferative activity by trypan blue exclusion assay, apoptosis determined by dual staining the cells with ethidium bromide (EB) and acridine orange (AO) dyes. On analysis it was found that all of the remedies tested (particularly the mother tinctures), produced cytotoxicity and a decrease in cell proliferation. Signs of apoptosis were evident including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. The MDCK cells were unaffected by any of the Sarsaparilla potencies. 
54. Olioso D, et al. Arnica Montana Effects on Gene Expression in a Human Macrophage Cell Line. Evaluation by Quantitative Real-Time PCR. Homeopathy, 2016, 105, 131-147. 
This work from Italy examined the mechanism of action of various potencies of homeopathically prepared Arnica (2C to 15C) on wound healing. Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis was used to study the changes in the expression of a customised panel of key genes, mainly cytokines, receptors and transcription factors. The results showed that for macrophages differentiated towards the wound healing phenotype, Arnica affected the expression of several genes, in particular, CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), coding for a chief chemokine, and that this exhibited the most consistent increase of expression, while CXC chemokine ligand 2 (CXCL2), Interleukin8 (IL8) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2) were slightly up-regulated, suggesting a positive influence of Arnica on neutrophil recruitment and on angiogenesis. MMP1, coding for a metalloproteinase capable of cleaving extracellular matrix substrates, was down-regulated. 
55. Pastelin LD, Pichardo CO, Vel-azquez GA. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Several Homeopathic Dilutions of Echinacea Angustifolia on Human Breast, Cervical and Prostate Cancer Cells and Genotoxic Study of E. angustifolia MT. Homeopathy, 2016, 105, 8. 
This Mexican study looked at the in-vitro anti-cancer effects of various homeopathically prepared potencies of Echinacea (mother tincture, 6C, 30C, 200C, and 1M) on different human cancer cell lines- MDA-MB- 231 (Breast cancer), HeLa (Cervical cancer) and PC-3 (Prostate cancer). Cytotoxicity was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-iphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Apoptosis was determined by Annexin-V with flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity was measured on peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC). Genotoxicity was evaluated by Ames test (in vitro) and Micronucleus assay (in vivo).The use of the Echinacea was associated with a viability reduction of between approximately 70 and 89% in the MDA-MB-231 cells, and a viability reduction of between approximately 40 and 96% for HeLa cells, when compared to controls. No viability reduction was seen in the PC-3 cells.
58. Mondal J, Samadder A, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Psorinum 6X Triggers Apoptosis Signals in Human Lung Cancer Cells. J Integr Med, 2016, Mar, 14, 2, 143-153. 
This controlled study was conducted to examine the in-vitro effects of the homeopathic medicine, Psorinum 6X, on cancer cells. Cancer cell lines, including A549, HepG2 and MCF-7, were exposed to homeopathically prepared Psorinum 6X or a control, and the outcomes assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The cell line that exhibited the greatest level of inhibition was selected and used in further assays to examine cell cycle arrest, cell death (apoptosis), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), with assessment carried out by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Expression of several signal proteins related to apoptosis and cell survival were quantified with Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Further, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to determine possible drug-DNA interactions, as well as the induction of conformational changes. The results showed that Psorinum 6X triggered apoptosis in A549 cells via both up-regulation and down-regulation of relevant signalling proteins, including p53, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. 
61. Frenkel M, et al. Cytotoxic Effects of Ultra-Diluted Remedies on Breast Cancer Cells. Int J Oncol, 2010, 36, 2, 395-403. 
This was an in-vitro study carried out by a joint US and Indian team to determine if homeopathically prepared materials prescribed by a clinic in India have any effect on breast cancer cell lines. The research team studied 4 medicines- Carcinosin 30C, Phytolacca 200C, Conium 3C and Thuja 30C, against two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a cell line derived from immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). The medicines exerted preferential cytotoxic effects against the two breast cancer cell lines, causing cell cycle delay/arrest and apoptosis. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, including down-regulation of phosphorylated Rb and up-regulation of the CDK inhibitor p27, which were likely to be responsible for the cell cycle delay/arrest as well as induction of the apoptotic cascade that manifested in the activation of caspase 7 and cleavage of PARP in the treated cells. 

Robert Medhurst on austraalialainen naturopaatti, joka on erikoistunut homeopatiaan ja on kirjoittanut kirjan: The Concordant Clinical Homeopathic Repertory, perustavaa laatua oleva opas kliinisen homeopatian käyttöön. Katso lisää osoitteesta:  www.adelaidehillsnaturopath.com.au.